True or false: the commodification of drugs in the late 1800s to early 1900s meant that drugs were used for medicinal purposes?
In the context of analyzing the war on drugs, the commodity chain approach is best defined as:
The relationship between producers and consumers.
The relationship between distributors and consumers.
The relationship between producers, distributors, and consumers.
The relationship between producers and distributors.
The War on Drugs was part of a campaign strategy devised for the Presidential election of:
Ronald Reagan, 1980.
Jimmy Carter, 1976.
Gerald Ford, 1974.
Richard Nixon, 1968.
In 1996, Gary Webb published three article exposé in the San Jose Mercury News titled Dark Alliance. What was the central idea of these articles?
A connection between the Vietnam War and the Contra freedom fighters in Central America.
A connection between Israel Army and the Contra freedom fighters in Central America.
A connection between the CIA, the Contras, and the crack cocaine explosion in US inner cities in the 1980s.
A connection between the Vietnam War and Heroin trade in the United States.
The creation of this organization in New Zealand modeled after the Black Panther Party for Self Defense represents the global dimension of Black Power.
The Māori Panthers.
The Polynesian Panthers.
The Tonga Panthers.
The Samoa Panthers.
These policies are predicated by U.S. drug policy in their attempts to combat drug trafficking activities, especially with Mexico are known as:
War on Drugs
War on DTOs
War on Organized Crime
These battles are waged either between different drug trafficking organizations or within a specific drug trafficking organization. Emphasis is place on the control of the territory through which narcotics transit on their way to the U.S.
War on Drugs
El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras have been besieged by both Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs), as well Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs). This has created a humanitarian crisis. These three Central American nations are collectively known as:
The Southern Triangle.
The Northern Triangle.
The Bermuda Triangle.
The Western Hemisphere Triangle.
According to the 2016 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), what is the strategic importance of Central America for both DTOs and TCOs?
Around 90% of cocaine coming to the US during the first half of 2015 made its way through the Mexico and Central America corridor.
Central America has a historical significance since the Cold War era.
The Central American corridor is an alternative to the Mexican corridor for the transit of cocaine.
The Central American corridor is an alternative to the Mexican corridor for the transit of methamphetamine.
What are the effects of Narcoviolence and Gang violence on U.S. immigration claims?
Convention Against Torture (CAT) cases.
Withholding of Removal.
All of the above
What are some of the reasons for the low approval rates on asylum claims from Mexican nationals?
Political, military, and economic ties between the United State, Mexico, and Central American nations.
Bias against Mexican asylum seekers reflected in political discourse, public opinion, and media reports.
Incomplete and/or inaccurate information about country conditions in Mexico by EOIR judges.
All of the above
What explains the spatial and temporal overlap of drug trafficking and deforestation in Mexico and Central America?
There is a strong casual evidence.
Limited by classified data on traffickers’ illegal activities and the dangers of conducting on site research.
Strong, incorruptible institutions in the region.
A bilateral collaboration by authorities to combat drug trafficking activities.
What interrelated mechanisms explain deforestation in Mexico and Central America?
Deforestation to create an infrastructure to produce and transport drugs.
Reproduction of a cycle of violence and corruption with a steady flow of cash and weapons.
Laundering drug money.
All of the above
What is a possible solution to narcodeforestation?
Drug Policy Reform
What is the reason for the creation of the self-defense forces or autodefensa groups in Mexico?
Mexican government’s failure to provide basic protection to their citizens from DTOs and lack of economic development measures in rural areas.
Vigilantes taking matters into their own hands.
A leftist leaning rebellion.
Armed forces to combat the potential threat of a communist revolution.
In Mexico, these clandestine laboratories for the production of synthetic drugs are set up in remote, rural areas, areas that are environmentally protected zones.
Crack cocaine labs
In 2006, President Felipe Calderón implemented a strategy to combat drug trafficking activities which amounted to fighting fire with fire. What was the result of this strategy?
A decrease in the violence associated with drug trafficking activities.
The disarticulation of the main DTOs in Mexico.
A factionalization of the main DTOs, resulting in an escalation of narcoviolence.
An decrease in the production and distribution of narcotics into the U.S.
During the Cold War era, Mexican officials engaged in what is known as Mexico’s hidden war. What was the official two pronged strategy implemented by the Mexican authorities?
Combating drug trafficking and promoting dissidence in rural Mexico.
Coalescing drug trafficking and dissidence in rural Mexico.
The eradication of dissidence and drugs.
Combating drug trafficking and promoting economic development in rural Mexico.
What is the basic tenet of Orientalism?
Europeans do not represent people from the orient.
Intellectuals engaged in the discourse of Orientalism maintain that Orientals are incapable of representing themselves, and Europeans accordingly must represent them. The result: the creation of European subjects and Oriental objects through discourses of difference involving race, gender, and sexuality.
Orientals are capable of representing themselves, and they do not need the assistance of Europeans to define their experiences.
European representation of Orientals is devoid of stereotypes.
True or false: According to Elizabeth G. Kennedy, 74, 449 people from Northern Triangle countries have applied for asylum in the U.S. since 2007, but only 2,250 application were granted.