What is the significance of the occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973?
It represents an administrative model of a well-run Indian Reservation.
It is used by AIM to bring national attention to the condition of Native Americans in the early 1970s in the US.
It is representative of a group of people’s inaction to change their world.
It is used by the United States government to highlight Native American assimilation; how Native Americans moved from a comparative state of savagery into civilization.
Agency is a term used to describe:
The act of accepting one’s fate passively.
An act of relegation to the margins of society.
The capacity of an individual or group of individuals to act in their world and transform the course of history.
Actions that represent a group of people.
Pan-Indianism, or Pan Indian Identity was an unintended consequence of the Indian Relocation Program. This concept refers to:
Unity amongst different Native Americans peoples in the Americas regardless of tribal affiliations.
Foments pride in being a member of a specific tribe.
A rejection of Indian pride.
Embracing the white man’s way of life.
Founded in October of 1966 in Oakland, the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was influenced by what events?
The non-violent approach of Rev. Martin Luther King.
Liberation struggles in the South and in the Third World.
The assassination of Marcus Garvey.
The bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.
The cases of Fred Hampton, Bunchy Carter and John Huggins are examples of the role the FBI played in undermining the growing political influence of the Black Panthers through a program that attempted to neutralize movements and leaders. What is the name of this accelerated FBI program?
Black nationalism had an important influence in organizations and individuals such as the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense and Stokely Carmichael. This theoretical influence is attributed to whom?
Martin Luther King Jr.
A. Phillip Randolph
The cases of Minoru Yasui in Portland, Fred Korematsu in California, and Gordon Hirabayashi in Washington exemplify the irony of fighting a war abroad against “racial superiority,” while in the United States different ethnic and racial minorities were faced with the contradictions between the reality of prejudice and the principle of equality. This campaign was known as:
Racial equity campaign.
Double V campaign.
The Indian Citizenship Act, signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge, accomplished the following:
Unilaterally made United States citizens all Indigenous people living the United States.
Made retributions as stipulated in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.
Returned land to Indigenous people.
Granted equal rights to Indigenous people.
In Enriqueta Vasquez and the Chicano Movement, what is Vasquez’s main criticism of the Chicana/o Movement?
The reproduction of societal gender roles within the movement.
The movement steered away for the tactics employed by LULAC.
The movement was not sufficiently militant.
The movement was outside of the Vietnam War protests.
According to the El Plan de Santa Barbara: Manifesto, Mexican people in the United States for decades struggled to realize the “American Dream.” At what cost did this occur:
Social and cultural incorporation.
At the ultimate cost of assimilation.
Access to higher education.
Lack of economic opportunities.
In 1851, through the passage of this act, Congress creates the reservation system to manage Native Americans. The government forces Native peoples to move to and live on reservations, where it can better subdue them. In 1871, a new act declared that “no Indian or tribe” would be recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty. This act is known as:
Indian Reservation Acts of 1851 and 1871.
Indian Management Act of 1851 and 1871.
Indian Appropriations Acts of 1851 and 1871.
Indian Relocation Act of 1956.
The U.S. government’s efforts to assimilate American Indians into mainstream culture can be seen throughout the 20th century in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) activities. In the 1940s, the BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to metropolitan areas such as Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Cleveland, and Seattle. BIA pledged assistance with locating housing and employment. What is the name of this Act?
Public Law 959 or the Adult Vocational Program.
The Indian Relocation Act of 1952.
The Indian Relocation Act of 1956.
All of the above
From the earliest days of the United States, the federal government had not known what to do about Indian tribes. To deal with Indian nations, the United States devised a series of treaties. In 1851 and in 1868, two treaties were signed. The 1851 treaty allowed for travelers, railroad surveyors, and construction workers to enter tribal lands safely. In the 1868 treaty, the United States Government recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, setting it aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. This treaty is known as:
The Treaty of Fort Wayne.
The Treaty of Fort Myers.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie.
The Treaty of Canandaigua.
In 1969, Fred Hampton and the Illinois Panthers, created a political coalition that respected ethnic communities of all kinds, led by poor black people. In addition to the Illinois Panthers, this coalition was also comprised of Rising Up Angry, the Young Lords, and the Young Patriots. What is the name given to this interracial coalition, whose name became the code word for class struggle?
The Youth Coalition.
The Street Gang Coalition.
The Rainbow Coalition.
The Melting Pot Coalition.
Written by Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales, this famous epic poem is associated with the Chicana/o Movement. The protagonist in this poem (or narrative voice) speaks of the struggles that the Chicana/o people have faced in attempting to achieve equality and social justice in the United States, as well as a defined identity.
The Cosmic Race
La Raza de Bronce
I am Tiburcio
I am Joaquin.
According to a 1969 survey administered by Bobby Seale, what percentage of women comprised the Black Panther Party’s membership?
In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner advanced the argument that American democracy was formed by the American frontier, establishing liberty by releasing Americans from European mindsets and destroying old, deteriorated customs. This theory is known as:
The moving frontier line theory
The binary theory
The Frontier or Tuner Thesis
The Relativity Theory.
This American Muslim minister and human rights activist is credited with having a profound influence in the development of Black Power ideology.
Between 1870 and 1960, over 100,000 Native Americans attended government run Boarding Schools. This policy was part of an assimilation strategy implemented by the US government to bring Native Americans from their state of comparative savagery and barbarism to one of civilization. The program failed, but the toll was devastating, destroying Indian families and communities.
The “de-indianization” program.
The de-colonization program.
The Americanization program.
The de-assimilation program.
On December 29, 1890, on the Lakota Pine Ridge Reservation, a massacre took place that marked a brutal end to the Indian Wars. It was also the site, in 1973, of the 71 day occupation by members of AIM.
Indian Creek Massacre.
Wounded Knee Massacre.
Owens Lake Massacre